The Orthodox Theological Seminary appeared in Vitebsk in 1856, being transferred from Polotsk. Located in the city of Vitebsk, the seminary continued to be called Polotsk until 1872, when it was renamed Vitebsk Theological Seminary by decree of Emperor Alexander II.

Prior to moving to its current location in 1876, namely the building of the former Alexander male gymnasium, the seminary was located in the building of the former Basilian monastery. It is noteworthy that the building in which the seminary is now, during the war of 1812 served as a hospital. Here he was treated after being wounded in battles near Vitebsk, the father of the great Russian poet M. Yu. Lermontov.

During World War I, the seminary building was occupied by a front-line hospital.

In 1918, the seminary was closed.

During World War II in this building was the German service of the SD. In the basement there was a prison in which the Vitebsk underground fighters and partisans were kept. In 1959, in the basement, they created an exhibition in memory of the patriots of Vitebsk. Before being handed over to the Orthodox church, the building itself housed a technical bureau and accounting department of a neighboring factory of tool grinding machines, now the Assumption Cathedral is located on the site of the factory.

Since 1997, the Vitebsk Theological School began its work in the current building of the seminary.

Since 1998, the school has a house church in honor of the holy Equal to the Apostles Cyril and Methodius. The building also houses the public library. A.P. Sapunova, church-archaeological museum, icon shop, charity refectory.

On May 30, 2011, the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church decided: “To convert the Vitebsk Theological School into the Vitebsk Theological Seminary. To appoint Archbishop of Vitebsk and Orsha Demetrius as rector of the Vitebsk Theological Seminary.

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